Lesson 12: Is/Are There Any? Do You Have?
In Kurmanji, the verb hebûn is used for a couple of purposes:
- To ask or state whether something exists or can be found in a certain place. (For example: There is a book on the table. Is there any gas in the car?)
- To ask whether someone has something. (For example: I do not have any money. Do you have any siblings?)
In everyday usage, this verb is almost always used in third person forms: there is, there are. However, it can occasionally be used in the first and second persons. For example, when Kurds want to ask if someone is “up for” something (i.e., do they want to join in doing something), they can use this verb. It’s similar to asking, Hey, are you ‘in’?
When stating that you don’t have something or that something does not exist (or is not found in a certain place), the word “tune” is used followed by the endings of the “to be” verb (bûn). This will be explained on the third slide of the current tab.
Forms of hebûn
The basic forms of hebûn (in the present tense) are he + the endings of the “to be” verb (bûn) which we learned in Lesson 3.
|Ez heme||Em hene|
|Tu heyî||Hûn hene|
|Ew heye||Ew hene|
As we mentioned earlier, this is used for two purposes. The first is to ask or state whether something exists or can be found in a certain place. In these cases, it is often used with prepositions, which we will cover in the next lesson. However, we’ll list a few examples here to give you an idea of how hebûn is used.
|There is a book on the table.||Li ser maseyê pirtûkek heye.|
|Is there a boy in the room?||Di odeyê de lawek heye?|
|There are three cups on the table.||Li ser masyê sê qedeh hene.|
|Are there three boys in the room?||Di odeyê de sê law hene?|
Notice that the word order or form does not change for questions. In speech a question is asked with voice inflection. In writing, a question is identified by using a question mark.
The second usage is to ask or state whether someone has or possesses something. Here are a few examples:
|I have a book.||Pirtûkeke min heye.|
|He has two eyes.||Du çavên wî hene.|
|Do you have a horse?||Hespekî te heye?|
|Do they have friends?||Hevalên wan hene?|
NOTE: Kurmanji speakers will often omit the indefinite suffix (-ek) in these types of sentences. Instead of saying “pirtûkeke min heye” they will simply say “pirtûka min heye.” However, it is not incorrect to use the –ek suffix here.
Forms of tune
The basic forms of tune (in the present tense) are tune + the endings of the “to be” verb (bûn) which we learned in Lesson 3.
|Ez tuneme||Em tunene|
|Tu tuneyî||Hûn tunene|
|Ew tuneye||Ew tunene|
Tune is used for the same purposes as hebûn but only in negative sentences or questions.
|There is not a book on the table.||Li ser maseyê pirtûkek tuneye.|
|Is there not a boy in the room?||Di odeyê de lawek tuneye?|
|There are not three cups on the table.||Li ser masyê sê qedeh tunene.|
|Are there not three boys in the room?||Di odeyê de sê law tunene?|
|I don’t have a book.||Pirtûkeke min tuneye.|
|He doesn’t have two eyes.||Du çavên wî tunene.|
|Do you not have a horse?||Hespekî te tuneye?|
|Do they not have friends?||Hevalên wan tunene?|
NOTE: Some Kurds will sometimes use nîn instead of tune. In these lessons we will only use tune. However, be aware that you may encounter the use of nîn among some Kurmanji speakers.